콩 식사 is a major source of protein used by the pig and poultry industries in Australia. 동행자 동물 식품의 제조 업체, 개 식품 등, 또한 다이어트에 대두박을 사용. 또한, 이 다재 다능 한 단백질 양식 다이어트에 단백질의 원천으로 사용 되 고. Soybean meal is an important source of protein for animals due to its excellent amino acid composition and high level of digestibility. soybean meal is the principal source of protein for the feed industry worldwide, 그것은 전략적으로 전 세계 올해의 매일 거래되는 성분이되었다. 공급 업체는 다른 단백질 소스를 비교하는에 표준으로 대두박을 사용. 대두박 가축 급지 단백질의 가격을 결정하는 단백질 공급원되었다.
콩 식사는 콩 오일 추출의 부산물. Several processes exist, 다른 제품의 결과로. Soybean meal is usually classified for marketing by its crude protein content. There are two main categories of soybean meal, the “high-protein” soybean meal with 47-49% 단백질과 3% 조잡 한 섬유, obtained from dehulled seeds, and the “conventional” 콩 식사, 와 함께 43-44% 단백질, 즉, 선체를 포함. 용매 추출 된 대두에서 식사, the oil content is typically lower than 2% while it exceeds 3% 식사를 기계적으로 추출
The extent to which soybean meal is used in diets for pigs and poultry is determined to a large extent by its cost effectiveness in supplying essential amino acids, particularly lysine, methionine and threonine. Several commercial software packages are available to carry out the many iterative computations involved in formulating a diet from a list of 30 or more feed ingredients. Because the availability and cost of feed ingredients are extremely dynamic in the market place, diet formulations constantly change in response to prevailing conditions.
The standard process for solvent extracted soybean meal production involves a series of treatments. These include cracking, dehulling, flaking, extraction, followed by desolventising and toasting.
Fullfat soybean meal is produced by heat treating soybean seeds either by steam, followed potentially by extrusion, toasting, and micronising, or jet sploding to produce a high oil, high protein product.
Soybean meal contains one of the highest levels of phosphorus (P) of all plant proteins, yet much of it is present in a complex with phytic acid, rendering the phosphorus in a poorly digested form for monogastric animals. Due to the large amounts of undigested dietary P, a substantial amount is excreted in the manure. This poses an environmental concern, especially in areas of the world where land and water resources are scarce and livestock population density is high. The addition of microbial phytase to diets increases the digestibility of phosphorus and decreases phosphorus excretion. The addition of phytase supplements may become more commonplace in Australia as the pressure to reduce nutrients in effluent increases. Any genetic improvement to soybeans to increase phosphorus availability could decrease diet cost and phosphorus excretion and increase dietary energy concentration. This would be beneficial to the pig and poultry industries.
Three main kinds of soybean meal are produced:
• full-fat soybean meal, made from whole soybeans. It has a high metabolizable energy concentration. (예를 들면, metabolizable energy for swine in this product is about 3.69 megacalories (즉. 15.4 MJ) per kg dry matter.) Crude protein concentration is about 38 % (as fed).This kind of product is sometimes fed to various classes of livestock.
• defatted soybean meal, containing no hulls. This product has an intermediate energy concentration. (예를 들면, metabolizable energy for swine in this product is about 3.38 megacalories (즉. 14.1 MJ) per kg dry matter.) Crude protein concentration is about 48 percent.This percentage [which is commonly used in describing the product] is calculated at the typical as-fed moisture content of 88 percent.Thus, crude protein concentration expressed on a dry matter basis is 54 %. This product is commonly fed to swine, broilers and layers.
• defatted soybean meal, containing soybean hulls. The hulls are readily digestible by ruminant livestock. This product is often fed as a protein supplement for domestic ruminants. Ruminant-metabolizable energy concentration is about 3.0 megacalories (즉. 약 12.5 MJ) per kg dry matter, and crude protein concentration is about 44 percent.The latter percentage [which is commonly used in describing the product] is calculated at the typical as-fed moisture content of 90 % 따라서, crude protein concentration on a dry matter basis is 49 %.